RENEWABLE ENERGY IN MALAYSIA SIMPLY BY MOHD HAIRINIZAM ABDUL KARIM TEACHERS OF ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT UITM, ARAU PERLIS FOR ENCIK KAMSOL MOHAMED KASSIM LECTURER…...Read
The article chosen for assessment is " Obstacles to effective policing in Nigeria" by Emmanuel C. Onyeozili. It follows the changes in the policing program in Nigeria from pre-colonial to post-colonial systems. That aims to add support for the claim that colonialism and the techniques of colonial policing were not ideal of the persons native to the areas that became Nigeria. The information offered in the content is based on an ethnographic observation of occurrences from freedom, the Nigerian civil battle, military regimes and rep governments and data assessed from publications, newspapers, academics articles and other documents as well as convenient sample personal selection interviews. Colonialism entails the secret or currently taking of territory of one people by one other and without their consent. This can be a highly debatable topic and the positive and negative aspects have been seriously debated. Expounders of colonialism use past colonies including the United States of America, Canada, Australia and Hong Kong since expamples of post-colonial success. However these are not typical examples simply because they were settler societies or perhaps tradepost towns and do not echo the normal course of colonialism. Experts point speak about that the purchase of land and subsequent mistreatment of the native people far outweigh the professed benefits of education and civilisation. Despite arguments put forward by colonists their occurrence did more harm than good, damage which remains to be ingrained in Nigeria and other African nations today. The change from classic values and institutions to harsh damaged control of the colonists did nothing to ensure that the native and in fact burdened their people more.
When colonial control was extablished the eventual emergence of your foreign and illegitimate judgment class resulted in the need to subdue and keep an eye on the local people to prevent any organized rebellion. So that communities that resisted the modern colonial master were addressed using armed service force. It absolutely was said that the change from traditional values and institutions was necessary simply because they were seen because unruly and lawless, an image purported by the slave trade and colonialism. It was fitting therefore which the first contemporary police force in the area was known as the Hausa police and were in fact paramilitary in nature. They dealt with mostly military obligations and had been perpetually bitten by the community that resented their existence. The police came to be known as the Informed Hausa Police and courts were proven that wanted the passions of the settlers. This activity away from the traditional systems of control in which self control was prompted instead of forced military control was not for the benefit of the folks but made controlling the population substantially less difficult for colonists. These tactics of violence and fear have been preserved by post-colonial governments and used against their opposing team. The police underwent further improvements and had goals and evidently delineated duties, " the prevention and detection of crime, the repression of internal disturbance, and the protection of the Nest and protection against external aggression" Even though the Lagos Police ' these duties law-and-order repair and huge range suppression continued to be the main emphasis over interpersonal services. After that the combination of the police of the Colony of Lagos and the The southern part of Nigerian Protectorate was vital that you the institution of nationwide police in Nigeria even though their primary duty continued to be the management of imperialiste disorder producing Nigerians open to colonial time exploitation and administration, policies continued to be produced to reduce and repress the need for flexibility from the colonial time interests. To perform these obligations better they will continued to be semi-military in character. This was necessary because of the resistance of several chiefs and the people who ongoing to guard their legal rights so that the performance of the forces of the law enforcement officials was generally...
Cited: factors include nepotism, ethnicism, problem, early socialization and vocabulary differences. Institutional constraints also contributed just like inadequate staff members, insufficient education among different poor circumstances. Ethnicism was a prominent aspect in the break down in law and purchase, in addition the issues of religious and inter-communal conflicts also played out a role because the police typically took attributes thereby modern conflicts and tarnishing law enforcement reputation. Ethnic nationalism had the potential as a positive power but profound seated bitterness and easy use of arms and ammunition supported the fights. Corruption by means of " God-fatherism" involved the protection of the " connected" criminals via prosecution. This sort of corruption effects numerous countried of the under developed and further attempts public trust in the law enforcement. When there are unslved assassinations of high account persons and police happen to be rumoured to be involved straight of indirectly by turning a sightless eye to these crimes only demonstrated numerous police file corruption error present. This corruption in reality infiltrated all facets of the police force. An additional part of the file corruption error identified simply by former minister of Law enforcement officials Affairs, David Jemibewon discovered the " Nigerian Factor" where marketing promotions and meetings were not based on performance yet given to close friends and family members whether or not they are qualified to support such a situation. The problem of miscommunication also is quite a issue. When the various peoples in the semi-illiterate culture use their particular " mom tongue" it creates a situation exactly where outsiders are unable to effectively contact the local people. In addition there are constitution challenges where the law enforcement are concerned, especially where th police within the command associated with an executive leader and have been used to silence opposition forces. The involvement of police in political governance usually creates a situation where the neutrality with the police can be compromised. This is seen in the participation in the police in stae personal governance through the military regimes of 1966-1917 and 1984-1999. The successful performance of duties in the law enforcement procedure is very important for the effective performing fo culture. In Nigeria crime and violence is usually rampant displaying the obvious inadequacies with the police. Robberies, assassination, arson, looting, and child-theft are no longer the different to the guideline. The police pressure were subjected to witheld salaries as a means of subjecting those to mental concern and lack of exercise until 99, so when the country delivered to democratic rule the authorities was reduced to a group of unarmed, demoralized semi-zombies. In order to survive a lot of them extort money coming from commercial individuals at illegitimate checkpoints create for just that purpose and also join provided robbery gangs. These details further enhance public doubtfulness of the authorities. As a respond to the repressive military secret a number of ethnic militant groupings came to the forefront to take their lives into their very own hands. These groups demand their autonomy and cultural rights whilst managing to acquire base appeal to the human population manifested by tacit support at the federal government level with the state level. The federal government however does not recognize them and have outlawed them. This has not changed the need for them in the states that use them for the protection of live and property inside the absence of a powerful police force. They've been criticized for their methods in usurping the judicial part and as cntributed to the loss in many harmless lives and property in a brazen disregard for important human legal rights. Despite these kinds of problems you will discover benfits from the militant activities of the cultural armies. Their very own struggle will be based upon the basic principle of proper rights, equity and fair perform a everyone should be open change to the fraud, fa?te and file corruption error so common in culture. By doing this stuff they have given hope to the common man in a country exactly where people have no confidence inside the government or perhaps the police. Also many visible individuals include occasionally stated support pertaining to the local vigilante groups within limited areas of operation.
The government has to understand that legitimate need for transform underlies the actions of the community vigilante organizations. Dialogue ought to be undertaken with these groupings to establish legal parameters for them to operate within just rather than a clampdown on them using force. These types of groups also employ indigenous approaches to identify scammers which can be of great service to the police push. The police pressure itself is within great require of a new modus operendi and the six-point program for development offered by Mister Sunday Ehindero is a move around in the right way. The public perspective of the authorities cannot be improved overnight and concerted effots must be designed to remedy the tarnished image of the police as time passes. The 1st real issue to be handled is the widespread corruption present in the police pressure so that the issue of spiraling crime can be more effieciently dealt with. An additional policy which can be implemented is always to defer criminal prosecution from the law enforcement officials to a different federal government agency so the fear of criminal prosecution will make managing police data corruption and excesses easier. A revision with the salaries of police would also be welcome making their salaries even more competitve, regular and timely therefore minimizing the temotation to take bribes and be involved in corruption and extortion. Law enforcement aslo really should not be allowed to carry political workplace that would have an effect on their sense of neutrality and impariality or cause them to have fidelity to whoever gave them power. Education can also perform a key function in getting law enforcement force about its foot, the officials can be knowledgeable in legal law and social sciences. This would make them to associate better to the population and give them a greater comprehension of their jobs so that they can conduct better. the promotion of officers must be based on a method of meritocracy and not based on affliation so that individuals may aspire to climb the positions based on their particular genuine capabilities and performance. Te author likewise suggests the decentralization in the Nigerian authorities an idea which can be seen to have some value. The separating into a three-tier police composition the government police, the state police and the local governmant police is going to maintain law enforcement for federal and express matters although keeping a local unit to deal with communities over a more close basis. Therefore keeping the persons and the police closer more progress will be made.
Nigeria has been seen as an corrupt nation much just like other under developed countries left to fend for themselves following the onslaught of colonialism. The systems put in place by colonialism keep the country from progressing in any significant way when they attain independence. Another difficulty not resolved in the document is the backlog of the legal justice program. It was too bad that the govt resorted to periodic amnesties just to reduce the inmate inhabitants. There have been others fghting against the corruption like the Economic and Financial Criminal offenses Commission plus the fight carries on.